New Testament Survey: The Book Of Matthew
The Book Of Matthew
- Matthew (Son Of Alphaeus)(Also called Levi; Mk 2:14-15, Lk 5:27)
- Name means: “Gift Of The Lord”
- Occupation: Tax Collector (A Publican) in Capernaum for the Roman Government (Mt 9:9, 10:2-4)
- While there is some debate about the authorship of this book (i.e. many of the verses in it are also found in Mark), all 11 of the key early church fathers (Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Papias, Polycarp, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Hippolytus, Origen, Eusebius) agreed that Matthew was the author.
- Tradition holds that Matthew may have originally written this book in Aramaic, and afterwards, either he, or another unknown person, translated it into Greek.
- On the day Jesus called Matthew to be His disciple, Matthew had a great feast in his house (Mk 2:13-17)(Lk 5:27-32).
- There is some disagreement about how Matthew died. Foxe says he was “slain with a halberd” (beheaded), while other sources say he died a natural death.
- The last account of Matthew in the Bible is found in (Acts 1:13) in the “upper room.”
- Chapters: 28
- Verses: 1071
- Number of parables: 20
- Number of miracles: 21
- Timeline: App. 34 years
- Ranges from as early as 50 A.D. to 67 A.D.
- Irenaeus tells us that Matthew wrote his Gospel while Peter and Paul were preaching and founding the church at Rome, which was after A.D. 61.
- The early church fathers were united that Matthew was the first Gospel written, hence the reason it is listed first in our Bibles today.
- Jesus prophesied the destruction of the Temple in (Mt 24:1-2). This occurred in 70 A.D. under the Roman general Titus. If this had happened prior to Matthew writing this book, he certainly would have mentioned it.
- Several sources believe Matthew wrote this book while at Antioch, or possibly Palestine.
- The Jews
- Jesus The King
(Mt 5:17)(Mt 6:9-13)(Mt 16:16-19,26)(Mt 22:35-40)(Mt 28:18-20)
- The Sermon On The Mount (The Beatitudes) (Mt 5:1-7:29)
- Instructions to the Apostles (Mt 10)
- Parables about the Kingdom of God (Mt 13)
- Life in God’s kingdom (Mt 18)
- The Olivet Discourse (Mt 24,25)
- To prove that Jesus was the promised Messiah, and that in Him the ancient prophecies had their fulfillment. Christ was the true heir to David’s throne as king.
- The rejection of Jesus by the Jews is the predominant theme of Matthew. Matthew placed a great emphasis on things that would be especially important to the Jews to convince them Jesus was the long awaited Messiah.
- He begins his book with the genealogy of Jesus, from Abraham (to whom the first Messianic promise was given), through David, to Joseph. No Jew would believe Jesus was the Messiah if He could not trace back His lineage.
- Matthew uses the phrase “Son Of David” 10 times. (Mt 1:1)(Mt 1:20)(Mt 9:27)(Mt 12:23)(Mt 15:22) (Mt 20:30-31)(Mt 21:9,15)(Mt 22:42)
- He also uses the phrase “Son of man” 31 times. This is more than any other Gospel.
- Matthew mentions the Sadducees 7 times, while Mark and Luke mention them only once each, and John does not mention them at all.
- The word “righteous,” or a form of it is used 18 times in Matthew, but only 9 times in the other Gospels combined.
- The word “church” is used three times in Matthew (Mt 16:18)(Mt 18:17), but not found in the other other Gospels at all.
- The term “Kingdom of Heaven” is used in Matthew 32 times, but not used in any of the other Gospels, although the “Kingdom of God” is used. It is believed that Matthew might have used “Heaven” rather than “God” out of respect for the Jews, who when writing the word God often spell it G_d out of reverence for His name. The “Kingdom of Heaven” and “Kingdom of God” appear to mean the same thing (compare Mt 13:11 to Lk 8:10, Mt 13:33 to Lk 13:20-21, Mt 13:31 to Mk 4:30-31).
- In addition, Matthew makes heavy use of prophecies to show Jesus was the fulfillment of these prophecies. Some of the more prominent of these are:
|Called Emmanuel (Isa 7:14)||(Mt 1:22-23)|
|Fleeing To Egypt (Hos 11:1)||(Mt 2:14-15)|
|Slaughtering of children (Jer 31:15)||(Mt 2:16-18)|
|Ministering in Galilee (Isa 9:1-2)||(Mt 4:13-16)|
|He took our infirmities and bore our sicknesses (Isa 53:4-5)||(Mt 8:17)|
|Preceded by a messenger (Mal 3:1)(Isa 40:3)||(Mt 11:10)|
|He will not cry out or raise His voice (Isa 42:1-4)||(Mt 12:17-21)|
|People will not see or hear (Isa 6:9-10)||(Mt 13:14-15)|
|Jesus would speak in parables (Ps 78:2)||(Mt 13:35)|
|The king riding on a donkey (Zech 9:9)||(Mt 21:4-5)|
|My house shall be called the house of prayer (Isa 56:7)||(Mt 21:13)|
|Soldiers cast lots for His clothes (Ps 22:17-18)||(Mt 27:35)|
- It is also interesting to note that the phrase “that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of by the prophet” is used 9 times In Matthew, but found in no other Gospel.
Jesus clearly proclaimed His deity a number of times in the book of Matthew:
- He claimed the Angels belonged to Him: (Mt 13:41).
- He claimed omnipresence: (Mt 18:20).
- He forgave sins: (Mt 9:1-8).
- He called Himself the “Lord of the Sabbath:” (Mt 12:8).
- He also allowed Himself to be worshipped: (Mt 8:2)(Mt 9:13)(Mt 14:33)(Mt 15:25)(Mt 28:17).
Key things in Matthew not found in the other Gospels:
- The Angel of the Lord speaking to Joseph: (Mt 1:18-25).
- Mary and Joseph fleeing to Egypt: (Mt 2:13-15).
- Herod killing the children: (Mt 2:16-18).
- The visit of the wise men: (Mt 2:1-12).
- The bodies of some saints who had died previously came back life after Jesus died: (Mt 27:52-53).
- Jesus’ appearance to the women: (Mt 28:9-10).
- The bribing of the soldiers by the Jewish authorities: (Mt 28:11-15).
- The Great Commission: (Mt 28:19-20).
Matthew falls into three principle divisions:
1. The manifestation to Israel and the rejection of Jesus Christ the Son of David, born King of the Jews, 1:1-25:46. The subdivisions of this part are:
- 1. The official genealogy and birth of the King, 1:1-25;
- 2. The infancy and obscurity of the King, 2:1-23;
- 3. The kingdom “at hand,” 3:1-12:50 (the order of this subdivision is indicated in the text);
- 4. The mysteries of the kingdom, 13:1-52;
- 5. The ministry of the rejected King, 13:53-23:39;
- 6. The promise of the King to return in power and great glory, 24:1-25:46;
2. The sacrifice and resurrection of Jesus Christ, the Son of Abraham, 26:1-28:8
3. The risen Lord in ministry to His own, 28:9-20.
(Survey from Scofield Reference Notes [1917 Ed]: Public Domain)