Author: Paul (Phil 1:1)
(For more on Paul see: Survey: Biography Of Paul)
Both the internal and external evidence points to Paul writing this Epistle. The personal details
shared all match what we know of Paul from other New Testament books. The doctrine, style,
language used, and manner of thought are all Pauline.
The early church fathers (Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Polycarp, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Hippolytus,
Origen, Eusebius) agreed that Paul authored this book.
Most agree that this was the 10th of the 13 Epistles that Paul wrote.
While in prison (Phil 1:7,13,14,17) at Rome (greetings from Caesar's household [who had been
converted]: Phil 4:22)(the palace/praetorian guard: Phil 1:13).
This was the final of four "Prison Epistles" that Paul wrote (Ephesians, Colossians, Philemon,
Philippians) during his 1st imprisonment in Rome which lasted 2 years (Acts 28:30).
There are a number of things that point to this being the last of the four written, likely well
after the first three, and near the end of his Roman imprisonment:
1. We know that some considerable time must have elapsed after Paul's arrival at Rome before he could
have written this Epistle; for the news of his arrival had been carried to Philippi and a
contribution to his needs had been raised among his friends there, and Epaphroditus had carried it to
Rome. In Rome, Epaphroditus had become seriously sick and the news of this sickness had been carried
back to Philippi and the Philippians had sent back a message of sympathy to him. At least four trips
between Rome and Philippi are thus indicated, and there are intervals of greater or less length between
them. The distance between the two cities was some 700 miles. There were many making the trip at all
times, but the journey would occupy a month at least, and the four journeys suggested in the Epistle
were not in direct succession.
2. Paul says that through him Christ had become known throughout the whole praetorian guard
(Phil 1:13). It must have taken some time for this to become possible.
3. The conditions outside the prison, where Christ was being preached, by some in a spirit of love, and
by others in a spirit of faction, cannot be located in the earliest months of Paul's sojourn in Rome
(Phil 1:15-17). They must belong to a time when Christianity had developed in the city and parties had
been formed in the church.
4. Luke was well known at Philippi, yet he sends no salutation to the Philippians in this Epistle. He
surely would have done so if he had been with Paul at the time of its writing. He was with the apostle
when he wrote to the Colossians, and so was Demas (Col 4:14). In this Epistle, Paul promises to send
Timothy to Philippi, and says, "I have no man likeminded, who will care truly for your state"
(Phil 2:20). This must mean that Aristarchus, Demas, and Luke were all gone. They had all been with
him when he wrote the other Epistles.
5. His condition as a prisoner seems to have changed for the worse. He had enjoyed comparative liberty
for the first 2 years of his imprisonment at Rome, living in his own hired house and accessible to all
his friends. He had now been removed, possibly to the guardroom of the Roman soldiers. Here, he was in
more rigorous confinement, in want and alone.
6. Paul writes as if he thought that his case would be decided soon (Phil 2:23-24). He seems to be
facing his final trial. He is not sure of its outcome. He may die a martyr's death, but he expects to
be acquitted and then to be at liberty to do further missionary work. This was not his immediate
expectation when he wrote the other Epistles, and therefore, they would seem to be earlier than this.
1. To express his love for his "beloved" Philippian church and thank them for the gift they had sent by
2. To give them some information about his circumstances and his condition in the Roman prison.
3. To encourage and strengthen them, and tell them how to find joy in Jesus Christ regardless of
4. To explain why he was sending back Epaphroditus prematurely.
5. To exhort them to be unified and not divided.
6. To warn them about Judiazers and their legalistic teachings, as well as antinomians (those who held
that because of grace, moral laws no longer needed to be followed because salvation is by
About The City:
Originally known as Krenides, (meaning: fountains or springs, because many were located there),
Philippi was given its name in 356 B.C. by Philip of Macedon (the father of Alexander The Great)
who captured it (likely because of its gold mines and strategic location) and renamed it after
In 42 B.C., there was a battle with Brutus and Cassius on one side and Mark Antony and Octavian
(Augustus) on the other. When Mark Antony and Octavian prevailed, Philippi became a
colony." Many of those who fought in the war ended up settling in Philippi.
Philippi was "the chief city of that part (the western part) of Macedonia" (Acts 16:12). It was
situated between the mountain ranges of Pangaeus and Haemus, about 8-10 miles from the coastal
city of Neopolis and the Aegean Sea. The Gangites River (where Lydia and her household were
converted: Acts 16:13) was located just outside the city.
It was located along a major trade route called the Egnatian Way (Via Egnatia) which connected
Europe with Asia and Rome. This (along with its gold mines) was a major reason for its
It also had a forum, library, open air theatre, public baths, a famous "arch" just outside of the
city on the way to the river, and several temples.
Today, the ruins of each of these things which were in the city can be seen in a quiet meadow
where cattle graze in a place called Philibedjik.
About The Church
Paul, along with Silas, Timothy, and Luke, first visited this city during his 2nd missionary
journey (49-52 A.D.) and planted the church (the 1st church in Europe) at this time. The account
of this visit is found in (Acts 16:12-40). (Paul also wrote 2nd Corinthians during this visit.)
The reason Paul went to Philippi was because while he was in Troas, God had given him a vision
where a man from Macedonia pleaded with Paul to "Come over into Macedonia, and help us"
After this vision, Paul left Troas and landed at Neapolis where he took the Egnatian Way to
Several noteworthy events occurred during this trip:
Lydia became the first Christian convert in Europe, along with her household and
companions (Acts 16:13-15).
A woman with a spirit of divination had been following Paul and Silas. Paul cast the
demon out of her, and her masters, becoming angry at their loss of income, dragged Paul
and Silas before the authorities and magistrates. They had them flogged and put into
the "inner prison" bound in stocks. At midnight, God sent an earthquake which opened
the doors to all of the cells. The jailer was going to kill himself because the
prisoners had escaped, however, Paul reassured the jailer that they were all still in
their cells. At this, the jailer asked the famous words, "Sirs, what must I do to be
saved?" and Paul and Silas replied, "Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt
be saved, and thy house." The jailer and his household were saved that night
The magistrates learned the next day that Paul and Silas were Roman citizens and could
not legally be flogged. Terrified, they begged them to leave the city, and Paul and
Silas agreed to do so. (This may have given the church favor in Philippi.)
Because Philippi was primarily a military center, it did not have many Jews. There was no
synagogue in the city (it took 10 Jewish men who headed households to start one). In the New
Testament, no Hebrew names are found among the converts of this city.
In addition, women were unusually prominent in this church (i.e. Lydia and her companions, as well
as Euodia and Syntyche: Phil 4:2).
The church at Philippi apparently faced a great deal of persecution (Phil 1:28-29).They were poor
(2 Cor 8:1-2) but generous. They raised money for Paul numerous times (Phil 4:15-16)(2 Cor 11:8-9)(2 Cor 8:1-5).
In fact, part of the reason Paul wrote this letter was to thank them for sending money to him
while he was in prison in Rome through one of their members named Ephphrodites (Phil 2:25)(Phil 4:18). (At some point during the trip, Ephphrodites became very ill and almost died
[Phil 2:25-30]. However, he did recover and Paul sent back this letter with him.)
The Christians at Philippi were Paul's favorite church. He considered them his children. They
loved him and he loved them (Phil 1:8-9). He called them his "beloved" (Phil 4:1)(Phil 2:12), and
his "joy and crown" (Phil 4:1). He said that they "obeyed not only in his (my) presence, but much
more in his (my) absence" (Phil 2:12). He thanked them for "their fellowship in the Gospels from
the first day until now" (Phil 1:5).
In contrast to his letters to the other churches, Paul had nothing critical to say to the church
at Philippi. He gave them only a small warning to be united and not divide (Phil 1:27)(Phil 2:1-4)(Phil 4:2-5).
The Philippians were proud to be Romans (Acts 16:21). Because they were a Roman colony, which
came about in 42 B.C., they were given many rights by Rome. These included Roman citizenship,
exemption from taxation, and being allowed to own, purchase, and transfer land.
They spoke Greek, although the official language was Latin.
Paul also visited Philippi twice during his 3rd missionary journey (about 5 years later), but we
are told little about these visits (Acts 20:1-6).
The word "rejoice" is used 9 times in Philippians. This is more than any other book in the New
The word "joy" is used 6 times. This is more than in any other Epistle Paul wrote.
"Christ" (37 times) is used in more than one-third of all the verses in Philippians.
While not an emphasis, it is interesting to note that there are no Old Testament quotes used in
1. Christ, the believer's life, rejoicing in suffering, 1:1-30.
2. Christ, the believer's pattern, rejoicing in lowly service, 2:1-30.
3. Christ, the believer's object, rejoicing despite imperfections, 3:1-21.
4. Christ, the believer's strength, rejoicing over anxiety, 4:1-23.
(Survey from Scofield Reference Notes [1917 ed.]: Public Domain)